HOW TO DO ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELDWORK IN A COVID-19 SECURE WAY
Published 1 September 2020, updated 5 January 2021
PLEASE NOTE: The following guidance is for archaeological fieldwork in Tiers 1-4. From 5 January England entered National Lockdown during which you MUST NOT leave home unless necessary. This means community archaeology work SHOULD NOT be carried out until the lockdown is eased. To find out more about the National Lockdown please visit https://www.gov.uk/coronavirus.
The Leicestershire Fieldworkers considers the wellbeing of our committee, members and volunteers, affiliated groups and members of the public to be our first priority and we have put in place protocols for our activities and events to ensure that we can continue to function as an organisation whilst being as safe as possible.
The following advice is adapted from Guidance on searching for archaeological finds in England during COVID-19. The guidance applies to those living and working in England following the change in restrictions introduced from 20 December 2020.
The current situation with Coronavirus is changing constantly. This Risk Assessment and Method Statement (RAMS) will be continually assessed and updated to ensure all work is carried out in accordance with the most up to date guidance organisers need to be aware of local restrictions which may be introduced without warning.
GENERAL METHOD STATEMENT
Below is a guide to the extra steps that must be carried out when planning and leading archaeological fieldwork in Tiers 1-4 – to ensure it is both COVID-safe and enjoyable for all. This guidance is superseded by the rules of National Lockdown during which community archaeological fieldwork is prohibited.
Fieldwork in Tiers 1-4:
As Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland may fall under different tiers, you must make sure that you are aware of the restrictions for your area and follow them. The Regulations do not restrict you being outside the place you are living, although they do place restrictions on gathering with other people. Therefore archaeological fieldwork (e.g. fieldwalking, geophysical survey, metal detecting, excavation etc.) IS ALLOWED IN TIERS 1-3 (see table below), but you must follow the appropriate government guidance on Local restrictions for the tier you live in. Most fieldwork IS NOT ALLOWED IN TIER 4 (see table below) where you must not leave or be outside of your home except for specific purposes.
|Activity||Tier 1||Tier 2||Tier 3||National Lockdown and Tier 4|
|Indoors||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’* in COVID-secure venues at 50% capacity||Yes, as household (inc. support bubble)** in COVID-secure venues at 50% capacity||No||No|
|Fieldwalking||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||No|
|Metal detecting||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||No***|
|Geophysical survey||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||No|
|Test-pitting||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’ (inc. private gardens)||Yes, as household (inc. support bubble) in private gardens||No|
|Excavation||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||Yes, follow ‘rule of 6’||No|
** You must not meet socially (in a private garden or at most outdoor public venues), with anybody you do not live with or have a support bubble with. However, you can see friends and family you do not live with (or do not have a support bubble with) in some outdoor public places, in a group of up to 6. This limit of 6 includes children of any age. These outdoor public places include: parks, beaches, countryside accessible to the public, forests, public gardens (whether or not you pay to enter them), allotments, the grounds of a heritage site, outdoor sports courts and facilities, playgrounds.
*** In Tier 4, metal detecting can take place, with permission from the landowner, in an outdoor public space because it is considered outdoor exercise. This must be done alone, with the people you live with, with your support bubble or, when on your own, with 1 person from another household. HOWEVER: You cannot detect on private land, even if you have permission from the owner, unless it is part of the place where you are living (as defined in the regulations). Metal detecting CANNOT take place during the National Lockdown.
Before you start fieldwork:
- Ensure that current regulations allow for your kind of activity/event (see table above).
- As usual, you must obtain permission from the landowner and occupier before venturing on to any land.
- If you gained permission from the landowner and occupier prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, you should check again that they are happy for you to continue accessing their land. Take into consideration that they may be isolating or shielding and may wish to limit the number of people coming onto their land. You should accept any decision they make.
- Consider how you will interact with others, such as the landowner and/or occupiers, other fieldworkers, and members of the public. Carry out a Risk Assessment and Method Statement (RAMS) and plan for how you will implement and maintain safe social distancing (see example fieldwalking method statement at end of document). Download the COVID19 RAMS template from http://leicsfieldworkers.co.uk/covid-19-guidance/
- Carry out a reconnaissance of your activity/event site. Make a note of any potential hazards and plan any adjustments (e.g. are there any obstacles which might impede social distancing, such as gates, styles etc.).
- Do not allow participants to carry out fieldwork without approval from your group’s organisers/committee or the Leicestershire Fieldworkers Committee (for members not affiliated with a local group). Issue a letter/email notifying individuals that they are approved for fieldwork.
- Do not send participants to a site without a RAMS document approved by your group’s committee or the Leicestershire Fieldworkers Committee. Share the risk assessment with participants before the activity/event. If you have any concerns about the risk mitigation strategies your group has put in place, please raise them with the Leicestershire Fieldworkers Committee (firstname.lastname@example.org) and they will liaise with you and your group to address your concerns.
- Ensure that participation is limited to 6 people (see Being Outside and Being Inside below).
- Ensure that the group has provided sufficient resources (cleaning products, sanitising products and access to water, tools, vehicles and welfare etc.) to enable participants to follow the risk assessment.
- Ensure that the group has provided participants with all necessary PPE to do their work. Advice participants to bring a mask in case it is needed.
- Do not let activities and events which cannot operate in line with this guidance take place.
- Do not let participants take part activities and events if they are restricted by current government guidelines (e.g. self-isolating or sharing accommodation with someone else self-isolating or in the At Risk category).
- There are currently no restrictions on how far you can travel to get to the countryside but be aware of any local restrictions which may limit travel inside/outside a designated tier.
- If you live in a TIER 1 area and travel to an area in a higher tier you must follow the rules for that area while you are there. You should avoid travel to or overnight stays in TIER 3 areas other than where necessary and should not visit TIER 4 areas. You can travel through a TIER 3 or 4 area as part of a longer journey.
- If you live in a TIER 2 area, you must continue to follow TIER 2 rules when you travel to a TIER 1 area. You should avoid travel to or overnight stays in TIER 3 areas other than where necessary and should not visit TIER 4 areas. You can travel through a TIER 3 or 4 area as a part of a longer journey.
- If you live in a TIER 3 area, you can continue to travel to venues or amenities which are open, but should aim to reduce the number of journeys you make where possible. You should avoid travelling out of the area (including for overnight stays) other than where necessary.
- If you live in a TIER 4 area, you must not leave your home unless you have a reasonable excuse (e.g. for work or education purposes). If you need to travel you should stay local – meaning avoiding travelling outside of your village, town or the part of a city where you live – and look to reduce the number of journeys you make overall. You must not leave your TIER 4 area, other than for legally permitted reasons such as: work where you cannot work from home, education, visiting your support bubble, medieval appointments, or in an emergency.
- Walk and cycle if you can. Where this is not possible, use public transport or drive. If using public transport is necessary, wearing a face covering is mandatory.
- Ideally, travel in a private vehicle, alone or with other members of your own household and/or social bubble. Do not share a vehicle with people outside your household/social bubble.
- Make sure you park where you can maintain a 2m distance from other people at all times.
- When travelling to outdoor spaces, it is important that you respect the rules in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and do not travel to different parts of the UK where your intended activities would be prohibited by legislation passed by the relevant devolved administration.
- While this guidance applies to England, you should always consider whether there are local restrictions in place in your area. If you live, work or volunteer in an area that is experiencing a local COVID-19 outbreak and where local restrictions have been imposed, different guidance and legislation will apply. Please consult the local restrictions pages to see if any restrictions are in place in your area.
- There is no limit to the amount of time you can spend outside for exercise.
- People should continue to socially distance from those they do not live with wherever possible.
- Since 14 September 2020 it is AGAINST THE LAW to meet people you do not live with in a group larger than 6 (unless you are meeting as a household or support bubble). This is known as the ‘rule of 6’ and applies to people living in Tiers 1-3. In Tier 4 you can only meet with 1 person who you do not live with, or who is not in your support bubble. The police will have the powers to enforce these legal limits, including to issue fines (fixed penalty notice) of £200, doubling for further breaches up to a maximum of £6,400. If you hold, or are involved in holding, an illegal gathering of over 30 people, the police can issue fines of £10,000.
- You should be alert to other people nearby, 2m or 1m with risk mitigation (where 2m is not viable) are acceptable.
- Ensure that you follow the guidance for providers of outdoor facilities on the phased return of sport and recreation in England.
- REMEMBER: It may not be possible to share detailed sight of a find e.g. pottery with companions while in the field, while still maintaining social distance. Develop a strategy for important finds to be lodged with the person best placed to identify them.
- If participants are unable to work according to the RAMS or are working alongside people/organisations who are not operating in accordance with the RAMS, stop work immediately and leave site.
- Indoor activities can proceed with caution in public buildings, such as libraries, community centres and halls in some instances (see below).
- In Tier 1, venues can host multiple groups and should follow COVID-19-secure guidance, but you must not mix in groups larger than 6, unless you all live together, are in the same support bubble, or another exemption applies. Capacity should be restricted to 50%.
- In Tier 2, venues can host multiple groups and should follow COVID-secure guidance, but you must not mix with anyone who is not part of your household or support bubble when you are indoors. Capacity should be restricted to 50%.
- In Tiers 3-4, you must not meet socially indoors with anybody you do not live with or have a support bubble with. ‘Indoors’ means any indoor setting, including private homes and other indoor venues such as libraries, community centres and halls.
- When you visit a venue you should:
- Follow the limits on the number of other people you should meet with as a group – no more than six people unless you all live together (or are in the same support bubble).
- Avoid social interaction with anyone outside the group you are with, even if you see other people you know.
- Provide your contact details to the organiser so that you can be contacted if needed by the NHS Test and Trace programme.
- It is important for people to maintain social distancing and good hand hygiene when visiting these spaces. People using community facilities should continue to limit their interactions with those they do not live with outside of any formal activities they are participating in to help control the virus.
- Ensure that you follow the Working safely during Coronavirus COVID-19 guidelines for protecting people working in and visiting any indoor areas during the fieldwork.
- Group finds identification sessions, which involved the shared handling and close inspection of archaeological material should not take place without special protocols being put in place. Follow applicable Covid 19 regulations and create a RAMS which is separate to any fieldwork.
- If you are meeting outdoors, advise participants to bring their own face mask in case of an emergency.
- If you are meeting indoors then you should follow government guidance on face coverings.
- People should use their own personal tools and records wherever possible. No sharing.
- If shared equipment (e.g. geophysical and survey equipment) is to be used, all surfaces should be wiped down before receiving or handing it over. Ideally, as few people as possible should be allowed to use any shared equipment.
REMEMBER the 5 steps to working safely:
- Carry out a COVID-19 risk assessment.
- Develop cleaning, handwashing and hygiene procedures
- Help people to participate from home
- Maintain 2m social distancing, where possible
- Where people cannot be 2m apart, manage transmission risk
COVID-19 RISK ASSESSMENT AND METHOD STATEMENT TEMPLATE
The following template is a tool to help you plan and lead Leicestershire Fieldworker (inc. affiliated group) activities/events safely in regard to COVID-19. YOU MUST do a COVID-19 risk assessment for each activity/event (e.g. for every fieldwalk, geophysical survey, excavation, talk etc.).
REMEMBER – you still need to complete a standard risk assessment for each activity/event (see https://leicsfieldworkers.co.uk/our-resources/fieldwork-guides/ for more information).
Use the template to assess whether your group activity/event is safe to go ahead.
We have included suggestions for the ways to control the risks – you do not need to tick every box. The important thing is to identify the potential hazards and note the actions you will take to reduce the risk for your activity/event. For instance, if you are fieldwalking you do not need to consider/implement actions for indoor meetings.
It is important to carry out a risk assessment before the activity/event takes place. You should start filling it out when planning your activity/event and update it with any extra hazards that you notice on site before you start and/or during the activity/event.
Think about the different types of hazards and risks. We’ve included some common examples but think carefully about your own activity/event in case anything needs adding (there is space at the bottom of the risk assessment to add extra items).
REMEMBER: This IS NOT an exhaustive list, so think carefully about any specific risks you may encounter at you activity/event.
Next, consider the steps you can take to minimise the risk. Remember that this may sometimes mean changing your original plan.
If you’re not sure what to do to reduce the risk, contact the Leicestershire Fieldworker committee at email@example.com for advice.
EXAMPLE FIELDWALKING METHOD STATEMENT
The following is an example method statement for how Leicestershire Fieldworkers may carry out fieldwalking activities under COVID-19 restrictions. Please see separate risk assessment for more detailed identification of hazards and measures put in place to control risk.
- Field setup to be carried out by group organisers/designated people before participants arrive. Setting up field will be limited to 2 people.
- Shared equipment used during field setup to be cleaned before and after use. Hand sanitizer and cleaning materials to be provided. Gloves to be worn.
- Participants to arrive at site at specified time by own means. No sharing of vehicles with anyone not in the same household or social bubble (staggered arrival times/rota to be used if necessary).
- Register of who attended event to be kept by group and kept for 21 days to support NHS contact tracing.
- Participants to be briefed whilst maintaining appropriate physical social distance.
- Participants to bring their own finds bags and marker pens and to not share equipment.
- Transects to be walked by 1 person being careful to maintain physical social distance when walking. Transects to be a minimum of 2m apart.
- Participants to not crowd around to see a special find and to not pass finds around people who are not in the same household/social bubble.
- Finds to be taken home and washed by individual fieldwalkers (if group members).
- If finds to be collected in the field (e.g. from participants from outside the group), participants to place all finds bags in a sealable easily cleanable box. Box to be left in a well-ventilated space for suitable period before opening and processing.
- Participants to be reminded at the end of the event if they develop symptoms within 48 hours of the fieldwalk to apply for a COVID 19 test, and to support NHS contact tracing if requested.
If you have any questions please Contact Us